Several towns and villages near Amsterdam have a history of traditional costumes, for ladies as well as men. The ladies' costumes are most well known internationally. The style of clothing varies greatly per town/village.
Traditional costumes were worn in daily life until about the 1950's, after which wearing traditional costume largely became a folkloristic thing. Largely, because if you're lucky, you can still see (mostly elderly) ladies move about in their costumes.
The villages near Amsterdam, that have their own traditional costumes, are
In Amsterdam there's a spcific museum for traditional costumes: the Klederdrachtmuseum.
Klederdracht Museum / Dutch Costume Museum
Traditional costumes Marken (in Marker Museum)