If you're a fan of beer, Amsterdam is one of the places to be.
There is the famed beer shop De Bierkoning ('King of Beers'), near Dam Square.
Amsterdam has various beer breweries (list), some of which can be visited. Probably the most famous one is Brouwerij 't IJ, that is located just beside a windmill (called De Gooijer. The cafe in the brewery is opened until 8pm, and it is a major attraction, particularly when the weather is good enough to sit/stand outside.
Another good option is brewery De Prael, in the Red Light District.
A cafe that specializes in beer is the Delirium Cafe, near the Central Station. It has hundreds different kinds of beer.
Amsterdam also has the phenomenon of 'beer bikes'. They are vehicles that accommodate about 8 persons, that all have to cycle to move the thing forward. They're not liked very much by the locals, as the beer bikes attract noisy, drunk groups, and they tend to block traffic in the crowded and not very spatious centre of Amsterdam. The City of Amsterdam tries to ban the things, so far not very successfully.
Beer brewery De Prael
Beer brewery 't IJ' next to windmill De Gooijer
Beer shop 'De Bierkoning'